Supporting evidence-based violence prevention at local to global levels through original research, intelligence, evidence review and intervention evaluation.
Public Health Institute is a World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre for Violence Prevention. We work within the UK and internationally to support effective violence prevention by helping partners understand the burden and impacts of violence, identify at risk groups, choose appropriate preventive measures and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions.
PHI adopts an applied approach to violence prevention that provides the broad range of knowledge, skills, resources and evidence that organisations need to assess and address violence. This includes the development of intelligence systems providing multi-agency data on violence; original research among diverse population groups to strengthen understanding of the drivers and consequences of violence; systematic literature reviews to provide the most up to date knowledge of effective prevention; and intervention evaluations.
The collaboration with WHO has included the publication of a range of evidence reviews covering issues including knife violence, elder maltreatment and violence against individuals with disabilities. Public Health Institute has specialist expertise in youth and alcohol-related violence, including that in nightlife environments.
Violence and unintentional injury Case Studies
Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs)
A growing body of research is revealing the long-term impacts that experiences and events during childhood have on individuals’ life chances. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) such as abuse, neglect and dysfunctional home environments have been shown to be associated with …
Publications for Violence and unintentional injury
Papers for Violence and unintentional injury
Grassroots responses to violence against women and girls in post-earthquake Nepal: Lessons from the field
Kay Standing, Sara Parker, Sapana Bista
Gender & Development, Volume 24, Issue 2, 2016 Special Issue: Violence Against Women and Girls, pages 187-204, 2016.
Abstract: Violence against women and girls (VAWG), including sexual violence, can increase after natural disasters. This article provides evidence from Nepal, a country where progress has been made on gender equality but VAWG remains an endemic problem. Research since the earthquakes involving women activists and non-government organisations indicates the continuing challenges facing disaster response efforts to prevent VAWG and protect women. Women and girls in camps and temporary shelters feel threatened and insecure due to the risk of violence and lack of privacy. Humanitarian aid, health care, and disaster responses can challenge VAWG, and offer safe spaces for women and girls to be established. This article draws on the views of grassroots women’s activists in Nepal and shares lessons for development and humanitarian workers about steps to be taken to challenge and minimise VAWG in emergency situations.
Global development and diffusion of outcome evaluation research for interpersonal and self-directed violence prevention from 2007 to 2013: A systematic review
Professor Karen Hughes, Professor Mark Bellis, Katie Hardcastle, Alexander Butchart, Linda Dahlberg, James Mercy, Christopher Mikton
Aggression and Violent Behavior, Early online, In press, 2014.
Abstract: Through a global review, we identified gaps in the geographical distribution of violence prevention evidence outcome evaluation studies and the types of violence addressed. Systematic literature searches identified 355 articles published between 2007 and 2013 that evaluated programs to prevent interpersonal or self-directed violence; focused on universal or selected populations; and reported outcomes measuring violence or closely related risk factors. The number of studies identified increased annually from 2008 (n = 37), reaching 64 in 2013. Over half (n = 203) of all studies focused on youth violence yet only one on elder maltreatment. Study characteristics varied by year and violence type. Only 9.3% of all studies had been conducted in LMICs. These studies were less likely than those in high income countries (HICs) to have tested established interventions yet more likely to involve international collaboration. Evaluation studies successfully established in LMIC had often capitalized on other major regional priorities (e.g. HIV). Relationships between violence and social determinants, communicable and non-communicable diseases, and even economic prosperity should be explored as mechanisms to increase the global reach of violence prevention research. Results should inform future research strategies and provide a baseline for measuring progress in developing the violence prevention evidence-base, especially in LMICs.
Incidents of harm in European drinking environments and relationships with venue and customer characteristics
Dr Zara Quigg, Professor Karen Hughes, Professor Mark Bellis, Ninette van Hasselt, Amador Calafat, Matej Kosir, Mariangels Duch, Montse Juan, Lotte Voorham, Ferry Goossens
The International Journal Of Alcohol And Drug Research, August 2014.
Abstract: Aim: Research shows there are associations between bar environments and alcohol-related harms. However, few European studies have examined such links. Our study investigates the type of harms experienced by patrons in European bars, and their relationships with individual, social and environmental factors. Design: Unobtrusive one-hour observational visits. Characteristics of the bar environment, staff and patrons, and harms observed were recorded on structured schedules. Setting: Bars in four cities in the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the United Kingdom (U.K.). Participants: 238 observations across 60 bars. Measures: Analyses utilized chi-squared, analyses of variance and logistic regression. Findings: 114 incidents of harm were observed; in one-fifth of visits, at least one incident was recorded. People falling over, arguing or being so severely intoxicated that they required assistance to walk were the most common incidents observed. Bivariate analyses showed associations between a range of staffing, customer and environmental characteristics, and incidents of harm. Controlling for city and venue, only a permissive environment remained significant in multivariate analyses. Conclusions: Harms occurring in nightlife venues are typically minor. However, such incidents have the potential to escalate into more serious harms; thus, prevention is crucial. Prevention should focus on improving venue management practice and on the behavioral standards expected of customers.