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Qualitative Health Research, 2017.
Abstract: The growth of the Internet has led to an increase in researchers utilizing online methods. Online communities such as forums, blogs, and video platforms are particularly useful for research involving populations that are Internet savvy, seldom heard or discussing sensitive or illicit behavior. Drawing upon the experiences of four doctoral health students who are using online methods, this article discusses the value and benefits of conducting online research as well as the limitations and difficulties encountered. Consideration is given to the methodological and ethical implications of online research. Our own research leads us to reflect on participants’ perceptions of what is public, preserving anonymity and protecting participants from harm.
Professor Marie Claire Van Hout, C Claffey, M MacLachlan, Des Crowley
Heroin Addiction And Related Clinical Problems., 2017.
Abstract The Irish Travelling community are identified “as a people with shared history, culture and traditions including, historically, a nomadic way of life”. The core of Travelling culture is strong family bonds which support resilience, however changing social circumstances and dislocation have contributed to significant mental and physical health issues accompanied by a steep rise in substance abuse and addiction. Aim: To explore and describe Irish Travellers’ experiences of drug use and opioid agonist treatment (OAT), with a view to improving service delivery and expanding the limited research base.
Identifying the gaps in Nepalese migrant workers’ health and well-being: a review of the literature.
Professor Padam Simkhada, Pramod Regmi, Edwin van Teijlingen, Nirmal Aryal
JOURNAL OF TRAVEL MEDICINE, 24(4), 9 pages. doi:10.1093/jtm/tax021, 2017.
Abstract The health and well-being of migrant workers from low-income countries is often neglected in travel medicine. This article uses Nepal as a case study to highlight key issues affecting this particular group of international travellers.
The impact of adverse childhood experiences on health service use across the life course using a retrospective cohort study.
Mark Bellis, Professor Karen Hughes, Katie Hardcastle, Kat Ford, Dr Zara Quigg, Alisha Davies
JOURNAL OF HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH & POLICY, 22(3), 168-177. doi:10.1177/1355819617706720, 2017.
Abstract: The lifelong health impacts of adverse childhood experiences are increasingly being identified, including earlier and more frequent development of non-communicable disease. Our aim was to examine whether adverse childhood experiences are related to increased use of primary, emergency and in-patient care and at what ages such impact is apparent.
The effectiveness of interventions related to the use of illicit drugs: prevention, harm reduction, treatment and recovery. A ‘review of reviews’.
health Research Board, 2017.
Abstract: This review examines the evidence on the effectiveness of interventions in the areas of prevention, harm reduction, treatment and long term recovery related to illicit drug misuse and dependence.
Exploring patient characteristics and barriers to Hepatitis C treatment in patients on opioid substitution treatment (OST) attending a community based fibro-scanning clinic
Professor Marie Claire Van Hout, Des Crowley, John Lambert, Eamon Laird
Journal of Translational Internal Medicine, 2(5), 1-8., 2017.
Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health issue. There is substandard uptake in HCV assessment and treatment among people who inject drugs (PWID). Community fibroscanning is used to assess disease severity and target treatment.
Independent Evaluation of Project XSS V02 HIV Prevention, Treatment, Care and Support in Prison Settings in Sub Saharan Africa.: Independent Evaluation of Project XSS V02 HIV Prevention, Treatment, Care and Support in Prison Settings in Sub Saharan Africa.
Professor Marie Claire Van Hout, R Gunda, S Ruskaniko
UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2017.
Reflexivity, positionality and power in cross-cultural participatory action research with research assistants in rural Cambodia
Education Action Research, Pages 1-15 | Received 25 Nov 2016, Accepted 12 May 2017, Published online: 05 Jun, 2017.
Abstract: This paper draws on the experiences of a doctoral student undertaking a cross-cultural, cross-language participatory action research (PAR) project in rural Cambodia. Cambodia is a largely Buddhist country with a complex history of religion, invasion, colonisation, war and oppression. Despite a democratic constitution, political control and fear of challenging authority are ever present; and all had an impact on the participation and development of this project. I recruited eight volunteer community health workers (CHWs) and two research assistants (RAs) with an aim to explore methods and challenges faced when trying to improve health with and for community members. Over eight participatory workshops and a two-day training session CHWs identified, implemented and reflected on solutions to community health problems. Simultaneously, the RAs and I reflected on the processes and challenges we faced. Creating opportunity for reflexivity allowed for discussion to emerge around culture, position and power and how these were impacting on the research process and outcomes. Established social hierarchical power structures in Cambodia presented challenges to undertaking a PAR project with emancipatory and social change aims. Such structures also impacted on the ability and readiness of participants to be critical and analytical. The importance of the RAs as cultural navigators and the necessity of embracing their situated knowledge as both an insider and outsider is a key finding.
Home Manufacture of Drugs: An Online Investigation and a Toxicological Reality Check of Online Discussions on Drug Chemistry
Professor Marie Claire Van Hout, EA Alves, Evelyn Hearne, Jean-Paul Cornelius Grund
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 49(4), 279-288. doi:10.1080/02791072.2017.1320735, 2017.
Abstract Emerging trends in market dynamics and the use of new psychoactive substances are both a public health concern and a complex regulatory issue. One novel area of investigation is the availability of homemade opioids, amphetamines and dissociatives, and the potential fueling of interest in clandestine home manufacture of drugs via the Internet. We illustrate here how online communal folk pharmacology of homemade drugs on drug website forums may actually inform home manufacture practices or contribute to the reduction of harms associated with this practice. Discrepancies between online information around purification and making homemade drugs safer, and the synthesis of the same substances in a proper laboratory environment, exist. Moderation and shutdown of synthesis queries and discussions online are grounded in drug websites adhering to harm-reduction principles by facilitating discussions around purification of homemade drugs only. Drug discussion forums should consider reevaluating their policies on chemistry discussions in aiming to reach people who cannot or will not refrain from cooking their own drugs with credible information that may contribute to reductions in the harms associated with this practice.
Professor Marie Claire Van Hout, Eileen Rich, Charles Parry, Paolo Deluca
SAMJ SOUTH AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL, 107(5), 451-456. doi:10.7196/SAMJ.2017.v107i5.12242, 2017.
AbstractBackground. General practitioners are referring patients with codeine-related problems to specialist treatment facilities, but little is known about the addiction treatment providers, the kinds of treatment they provide, and whether training or other interventions are needed to strengthen this sector. Objectives. To investigate the perspectives of addiction treatment providers regarding treatment for codeine misuse or dependence. Method. Twenty addiction treatment providers linked to the South African Community Epidemiology Network on Drug Use and the South African Addiction Medicine Society were contacted telephonically and asked 20 questions. Results. While many participants had received training in pharmacological management of individuals with opioid dependence, only two had received specific training on codeine management. Between half and two-thirds of the treatment settings they worked in provided detoxification, pharmacotherapy, psychosocial treatment and aftercare. Very few treatment settings offered long-term treatment for codeine misuse and dependence. Participants indicated that over half of their codeine patients entered treatment for intentional misuse for intoxication, and dependence resulting from excessive or long-term use. The main barriers to patients entering treatment were seen as denial of having a problem, not being ready for change, mental health problems, stigma, and affordability of treatment. Participants identified a need for further training in how to manage withdrawal and detoxification, treatment modalities including motivational interviewing, and relapse prevention. Conclusions. Gaps in training among treatment providers need to centre on how to manage withdrawal from codeine use and detoxification, motivational interviewing and relapse prevention. Interventions are needed to address barriers to entering treatment, including user denial.