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Prevalence and risk of violence against adults with disabilities: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.
The Lancet, 379, 1621-1629, 2012, doi:10.1016/S0410-6736(11)61851-5..
Abstract: Background: About 15% of adults worldwide have a disability. These individuals are frequently reported to be at increased risk of violence, yet quantitative syntheses of studies of this issue are scarce. We aimed to quantify violence against adults with disabilities. Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched 12 electronic databases to identify primary research studies published between Jan 1, 1990, and Aug 17, 2010, reporting prevalence estimates of violence against adults (aged mainly ≥18 years) with disabilities, or their risk of violence compared with non-disabled adults. We included only studies reporting violence occurring within the 12 months before the study. We assessed studies with six core quality criteria, and pooled data for analysis. Findings: Of 10 663 references initially identified, 26 were eligible for inclusion, with data for 21 557 individuals with disabilities. 21 studies provided data suitable for meta-analysis of prevalence of violence, and ten for meta-analysis of risks of violence. Pooled prevalence of any (physical, sexual, or intimate partner) recent violence was 24·3% (95% CI 18·3—31·0) in people with mental illnesses, 6·1% (2·5—11·1) in those with intellectual impairments, and 3·2% (2·5—4·1) in those with non-specific impairments. We identified substantial heterogeneity in most prevalence estimates (I2 >75%). We noted large uncertainty around pooled risk estimates. Pooled crude odds ratios for the risk of violence in disabled compared with non-disabled individuals were 1·50 (95% CI 1·09—2·05) for all studies combined, 1·31 (0·93—1·84) for people with non-specific impairments, 1·60 (1·05—2·45) for people with intellectual impairments, and 3·86 (0·91—16·43) for those with mental illnesses. Interpretation: Adults with disabilities are at a higher risk of violence than are non-disabled adults, and those with mental illnesses could be particularly vulnerable. However, available studies have methodological weaknesses and gaps exist in the types of disability and violence they address. Robust studies are absent for most regions of the world, particularly low-income and middle-income countries. Funding: WHO Department of Violence and Injury Prevention and Disability.
Young people’s perspective on the portrayal of alcohol on televison: findings from a focus group study
Addiction, Research and Theory, ISSN: 1606-6359 print/1476-7392 online, 2012.
Abstract: This article presents findings of focus groups (n = 15) with young people (n = 114) which aimed to explore their views, experiences and interpretations of the ways in which alcohol and drinking are portrayed on television. Young people showed a sophisticated level of awareness of alcohol and its use on television and were adept at deconstructing the alcohol-related messages presented. Participants were undecided as to whether they believed television represented alcohol use in a realistic manner and acknowledged a contradiction between realistic accounts and exaggeration for the creation of ‘entertaining’ content. Overall, participants felt that television should provide a balanced view of alcohol use, showing both the positive side of drinking and the possible negative effects without an overemphasis on the latter. Young people did perceive television to exert an influence upon audiences. However, a ‘third person effect’ was found, with participants speaking in the third person and suggesting that television may influence others, but not themselves. The implications of the findings are discussed in relation to the potential influence of these representations on the development of alcohol-related beliefs and behaviour and the use of television in alcohol-related health promotion.
Drunk and disorganised: relationships between bar characteristics and customer intoxication in European drinking environments
Professor Karen Hughes, Dr Zara Quigg, Professor Mark Bellis, Amador Calafat, Ninette van Hasselt, Matej Kosir, Lotte Voorham, Ferry Goossens, Mariangels Duch
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 9(11), pp 4068-4082, 2012.
Abstract: Preventing alcohol-related harm in drinking environments is a growing international priority. Factors relating to the physical, social and staffing environments in bars can contribute to increased alcohol consumption and harm. Understanding the relationships between such factors and intoxication in European drinking environments is critical to developing appropriate interventions. We undertook a quantitative observational study in 60 bars in four European cities, in The Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the UK (n = 237 observational visits). Using a structured observational schedule, researchers recorded characteristics of the bar environment and rated customer intoxication levels. All physical bar characteristics showed associations with intoxication before interactions between them were controlled for. Hierarchical modelling found significant independent associations between intoxication and use of plastic glassware, promotion of non-alcoholic drinks (often energy drinks), permissive environments, poor washroom facilities, the presence of a dance floor, customer sexual activity/competitiveness and later observational time. Findings suggest that prevention efforts should focus on raising and enforcing managerial standards in bars. While harm reduction measures such as plastic glassware are often promoted for high risk bars, such measures are inadequate to address public health concerns and insufficient to demonstrate social responsibility.
Michelle Foley, Professor Marie Claire Van Hout
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education, 50(6), 328-341. doi:10.1080/14635240.735388, 2012.
Abstract: Schools are an important setting for the implementation of health education–prevention initiatives. Teachers are valuable partners in the delivery of health and social material, including that relating to alcohol and drugs. However, school-based substance education–prevention often exists in competition with academic agendas. The research aimed to investigate teacher's perspectives in Ireland on their role and that of the school in the delivery of school-based alcohol and cannabis education–prevention. Irish school-based drug education–prevention is currently provided within the remit of the Social Personal Health Education (SPHE) module, which is a compulsory element of the curriculum within secondary schools. Thirteen second-level schools partook in the research. A teacher questionnaire collected information around teacher's experiences of student alcohol and cannabis use, attitudes toward teacher and school prevention roles, and levels of school satisfaction (n = 131). The results indicated that teacher's experiences of effects of student alcohol and cannabis use in school were rare. Over half of teachers had never partaken in education–prevention activities, with those delivering SPHE teachers more likely to partake and report a positive attitude toward school-based alcohol and cannabis education–prevention. Teacher levels of satisfaction with their school were positively correlated with attitude toward the teacher and school's role in alcohol and cannabis education–prevention. High awareness of school drug and alcohol policies was recorded, along with the need for training, support, and information for all teachers. The findings underscore the need for ‘whole school’ integrated approaches involving a shared organization-wide approach to student substance education–prevention.
Rebekah Brennan, Professor Marie Claire Van Hout
Drugs and Alcohol Today, 12(4), 241-253. doi:10.1108/17459261211286654, 2012.
Abstract: About Emerald www.emeraldinsight.com With over forty years' experience, Emerald Group Publishing is a leading independent publisher of global research with impact in business, society, public policy and education. In total, Emerald publishes over 275 journals and more than 130 book series, as well as an extensive range of online products and services. Emerald is both COUNTER 3 and TRANSFER compliant. The organization is a partner of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and also works with Portico and the LOCKSS initiative for digital archive preservation. Abstract Purpose – Mephedrone is a synthetic stimulant drug causing entactogenic and hallucinogenic effects. A systematic review of all existing empirical research and literature from 2009-2012 on this new psychoactive drug was conducted. This paper aims to report on that review.
The long and winding road to publication
Edwin van Teijlingen, Professor Padam Simkhada, Dr Bibha Simkhada, Jillian Ireland
Nepal Journal of Epidemiology 2 (4), 213-215, 2012.
Abstract It is clear that academic dissemination has a system of checks and balances which authors may experience as barriers. We all want to be sure that scientific information disseminated in academic journals is based on solid data, ethically collected and correctly interpreted. The process of peer reviewing helps to prevent bad science and/or poor scientific papers being published. Many published scientific papers differ from the original submitted manuscript since papers go through a process of peer-review, editing and rewriting. However, there are other potential obstacles in the field of academic publishing. This paper is a case-study of one methods paper which stumbled upon a number of barriers related to the viability and continued existence of a number of academic journals in Nepal. Finally, we offer some advice to help health journals to survive when their editors leave.
The Temporal Focus Scale: Factor Structure and association with alcohol use in a sample of Northern Irish school children
Dr Michael McKay, Andrew Percy, Andrew Goudie, Professor Harry Sumnall, Jon Cole
Journal of Adolescence, 35(5), 1361-1368, 2012.
Abstract: The Temporal Focus Scale (TFS) is a 12-item self-report measure of cognitive engagement with the temporal domains of past, present and future. Developed in college student samples, a three-factor structure with adequate reliability and validity was documented in a series of independent studies. We tested the factor structure of the scale in a sample of Northern Irish adolescents and found that our data supported a three factor structure, although there were problems with item 10. Because time perspective measures have been found to relate differentially to various health behaviours, we tested the relations between scores on the TFS and self-reported alcohol use. Results showed that scores on the TFS were not consistent statistical predictors of drinking category in a logistic regression. Results are discussed in terms of scale development, future scale use and the assessment of health-compromising behaviours such as adolescent alcohol consumption.
Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. Retrieved from, 2012.
Abstract: In order to help drug users become full members of society following treatment, measures are needed that address the issues of housing, education, vocational training and employment as part of their recovery. This report considers existing interventions targeting this vulnerable social group. It also provides a set of conclusions targeted at policymakers and drug practitioners, in order to help them develop coherent and comprehensive social integration strategies. Examples of ‘what works’ in practice are a vital first step in developing evidence-based guidelines for future interventions.
Linda Bauld, Jennifer McKell, Colin Carroll, Dr Gordon Hay, Katherine Smith
Journal of Social Policy, Volume 41, Issue 04, October 2012, 751-768, 2012.
Abstract: Increasing the conditionality of welfare benefits is a growing trend in many developed countries, particularly in relation to some groups who may be perceived as undeserving of state support. Problem drug users (PDUs) are one such group, and in the UK most PDUs do not work and a high proportion claim benefits. Facilitating the movement of these individuals into employment is a policy aim, because it is believed to improve the circumstances of drug users (and promote future abstinence) and because moving all groups off benefits and into work is a primary purpose of recent welfare reforms. Yet little is known about the interactions of PDUs with the UK benefits system or how recent moves to increase the conditionality of benefits are likely to affect this vulnerable group. This paper begins to address this gap by exploring the perceptions that PDUs and relevant frontline staff have of drug users’ interactions with the welfare system and the factors affecting their prospects for employment. The findings suggest some aspects of recent welfare reforms, notably the simplification of benefits, may help PDUs interact with the system. However, the data also reinforce claims that the increased use of sanctions is unlikely to succeed in improving employment rates amongst this group without intensive support and demand-side interventions.
Data sharing for prevention: a case study in the development of a comprehensive emergency department injury surveillance system and its use in preventing violence and alcohol-related harms
Dr Zara Quigg, Professor Karen Hughes, Professor Mark Bellis
Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention 18(5), 315-20, 2012.
Abstract: Objective: To examine emergency department (ED) data sharing via a local injury surveillance system and assess its contribution to the prevention of violence and alcohol-related harms. Methods: 6-year (2004-2010) exploratory study analysing injury attendances to one ED in the North West of England using descriptive and trend analyses. Results: Over the 6-year period, there were 242,796 ED injury attendances, including 21,683 for intentional injuries. Compared with unintentional injury patients, intentional injury patients were more likely to be men, aged 18-34 years, live in the most deprived communities, have attended the ED at night/weekends, have been injured in a public place and have consumed alcohol prior to the injury. Detailed data collected on alcohol and violence-related ED attendances were shared with local partners to monitor local trends and inform prevention activity including targeted policing and licensing enforcement. Over the 6-year period, intentional ED injury attendances decreased by 35.6% and alcohol-related assault attendances decreased by 30.3%. CONCLUSIONS: The collection of additional ED data on assault details and alcohol use prior to injury, and its integration into multi-agency policy and practice, played an important role in driving local violence prevention activity. Further research is needed to assess the direct contribution ED data sharing makes to reductions in violence.