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Role of an infected foodhandler in Hotel Outbreak of Norwalk-like Viral Gastro-enteritis: Implications for Control
Professor John Reid, E Owen Caul, David White, Stephen Palmer
The Lancet, Volume 332, Issue 8606 (originally published as Volume 2, Issue 8606), pp 321–323, 1988.
Abstract: Investigation of an outbreak of viral (Norwalk-like) gastroenteritis amongst staff (40 cases), resident guests (over 70 cases), and persons attending functions (54 cases) at one hotel over 8 days suggested that the main vehicle of infection was cold foods prepared by a food handler during and after a mild gastrointestinal illness. He was excreting Norwalk-like virus particles 48 hours after the illness. In addition, ill kitchen staff vomited in the kitchen area and may have contaminated surfaces and stored foods. It is recommended that food handlers should be regarded as potentially infectious until at least 48 hours after clinical recovery from viral gastroenteritis. Stored foods that may have been contaminated should be immediately discarded and areas of the work place which may have been affected should be identified and decontaminated.
Ruth Hussey, Michael Edwards, Professor John Reid, Kevin Sykes, Howard Seymour, E Hopley, John Ashton
Public Health, Volume 101, Issue 2, pp 111–117, 1987.
Abstract: Mersey Regional Health Authority's strategy for health promotion includes increasing the general public's awareness of the individual and collective action necessary to improve health. The development of a ‘Health Fair’ was part of this process. The Health Fair was established as a feature at the International Garden Festival in 1984 and was used to denote a range of activities rather than the building where some of the events took place. The objective was to provide active learning which involved people in a consideration of their health status in different ways. One particular aspect was fitness testing. A sample of 234 people who undertook the fitness test over a two week period were interviewed by questionnaire. Twenty-six percent of males and 25% of females were concerned about their results and of these, 70% intended to exercise more. A follow-up questionnaire, sent 12 months later, produced a 67% response rate. The most obvious behaviour change was that 27% had been exercising more and 37% said that their diet had improved.
Professor John Reid, Joyce Carter
Public Health, Volume 100, Issue 2, pp 69–75, 1986.
Abstract: Outbreaks of hepatitis A in two primary schools in different parts of a city were investigated using similar methods. The pattern of each outbreak indicated that caseto-case transmission was likely. In both schools more boys than girls were affected. In one school, infection was commoner in those who brought packed lunches to school (10/86) compared with those who took school dinners or went home for lunch (3/88), although this was not statistically significant. Simple measures, such as attention to personal hygiene and exclusion of sick children from school, appeared to control the outbreaks. School-based transmission of hepatitis A in 5–14 year olds may be more important than the literature suggests, and may partly explain the high incidence in this age group.