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In Journal of Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences University (Vol. 11, Iss. 3, pp. 260-262)., 2016.
Abstract Establishing an effective global health research collaboration requires significant organisation and planning. This editorial introduces the launch of our new research collaboration. It highlights the processes and some of the key issues taken into consideration when setting up such a collaboration. In July 2016, a group of 16 researchers from India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Nigeria and the United Kingdom (UK) met at Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU) to initiate the 'Global Consortium on Public Health Research'. The meeting was funded by LJMU's Public Health Institute.
Pramod Regmi, Elizabeth Waithaka, Anjana Paudyal, Professor Padam Simkhada, Edwin van Teijlingen
Nepal J Epidemiol, 6(4), 640-644. doi:10.3126/nje.v6i4.17258, 2016.
Abstract Collecting research data through traditional approaches (face-to-face, postal or telephone survey) can be costly and time consuming. The emerging data collection approach based on internet/e-based technologies (e.g. online platforms and email), is a relatively cost effective survey alternative. These novel data collection strategies can collect large amounts of data from participants in a short time frame. Similarly, they also seem to be feasible and effective in collecting data on sensitive issues or with samples they are generally hard to reach, for example, men who have sex with men (MSM) or migrants. As a significant proportion of the population currently in the world are digitally connected, the shift from postal (paper-pencil) or telephone towards online survey use in research is in the interests of researchers in academia as well as in the commercial world. However, compared to designing and executing paper version of the questionnaire, there is limited literature to help a starting researcher with the design and a use of online questionnaires. This short paper highlights issues around: a) methodological aspect of online questionnaire survey; b) online survey planning and management; and c) ethical concerns that may arise while using this option. We believe that this paper will be useful for researchers who want to gain knowledge or apply this approach in their research.
Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. doi:10.2810/042412, 2016.
Abstract: The emergence of NPS over the last decade poses an important challenge to drug policy (UNODC, 2013). While prevalence levels of NPS use remain low in the general European population, there are important concerns with more problematic forms of use and harms in particular risk groups across different health and social settings. Important public health issues have arisen as a consequence of their use, although the real extent of these harms across Europe remains unknown. Initial responses to NPS in Europe have largely been regulatory, focusing on their supply using legislative tools (EMCDDA, 2015a) but, as the phenomenon evolves, it has increasingly become a priority to formulate and implement effective public health responses. Yet, while information on and our understanding of the availability and use of NPS have increased, there are still considerable knowledge gaps in current practices and even in the challenges and needs of European health professionals who are responding to the use of and harms caused by these novel substances.
Multicentre individual randomised controlled trial of screening and brief alcohol intervention to prevent risky drinking in young people aged 14-15 in a high school setting (SIPS JR-HIGH): study protocol.
Emma Giles, Simon Coulton, Paolo Deluca, Colin Drummond, Denise Howel, Eileen Kaner
BMJ OPEN, 6(12), 9 pages. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-012474.
Abstract: Drinking has adverse impacts on health, well-being, education and social outcomes for adolescents. Adolescents in England are among the heaviest drinkers in Europe. Recently, the proportion of adolescents who drink alcohol has fallen, although consumption among those who do drink has actually increased. This trial seeks to investigate how effective and efficient an alcohol brief intervention is with 11–15 years olds to encourage lower alcohol consumption.
‘If I don’t look good, it just doesn’t go up’: A qualitative study of young women’s drinking cultures and practices on Social Network Sites
Int J Drug Policy. 2016 Dec;38:50-62, 2016.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Young women in the UK often partake in a culture of intoxication in the pursuit of pleasure and friendship fun. Experiences of intoxication and drinking spaces remain highly gendered, and relative to men, women continue to find their behaviours in drinking spaces more constrained and scrutinised. Simultaneously, young women now express themselves via Social Network Sites (SNS), where they display drinking experiences and where they perform, negotiate and display contemporary femininities. METHODS: The research explored young women's experiences of drinking and intoxication, the use of SNS in their drinking cultures and the display of drinking practices on SNS through group interviews (n=12) with women (n=37) aged 16-21 from one city in the North-West of England, UK. RESULTS: The practice of uploading drinking photographs to SNS played an important role in displaying young women's popularity, enhancing friendship fun and belonging, and in positioning the hyper-sexual feminine look as the norm in drinking spaces. Both intoxication and the hyper-sexual and feminine look challenged traditional notions of respectable femininity, while the highly groomed feminine look itself was threatened by drunkenness. As such, young women invested much work and effort in self-surveillance and in managing the display of their drinking behaviours on SNS. CONCLUSION: The dilemmas in contemporary femininity created by the juxtaposition of hyper-sexual femininity and the culture of intoxication are reproduced on SNS. Controlling and restricting certain content on SNS with the aim of achieving the 'right' feminine self-presentation resulted in a narrowly set of body oriented and behavioural feminine attributes being presented as the norm, and an overly positive online representation of young women's drinking experiences.
An economic evaluation of contingency management for completion of hepatitis B vaccination in those on treatment for opiate dependence
Rachid Rafia, Peter J Dodd, Alan Brennan, Petra Meier, Professor Vivian Hope, Fortune Ncube, Sarah Byford, Hiong Tie, Nicola Metrebian, Jennifer Hellier, Tim Weaver, John Strang
Addiction, 111 :1616-1627, 2016.
Abstract: AIMS: To determine whether the provision of contingency management using financial incentives to improve hepatitis B vaccine completion in people who inject drugs entering community treatment represents a cost-effective use of health-care resources. DESIGN: A probabilistic cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted, using a decision-tree to estimate the short-term clinical and health-care cost impact of the vaccination strategies, followed by a Markov process to evaluate the long-term clinical consequences and costs associated with hepatitis B infection. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: Data on attendance to vaccination from a UK cluster randomized trial. INTERVENTION: Two contingency management options were examined in the trial: fixed versus escalating schedule financial incentives. MEASUREMENT: Life-time health-care costs and quality-adjusted life years discounted at 3.5% annually; incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. FINDINGS: The resulting estimate for the incremental life-time health-care cost of the contingency management strategy versus usual care was £21.86 [95% confidence interval (CI) = -£12.20 to 39.86] per person offered the incentive. For 1000 people offered the incentive, the incremental reduction in numbers of hepatitis B infections avoided over their lifetime was estimated at 19 (95% CI = 8-30). The probabilistic incremental cost per quality adjusted life-year gained of the contingency management programme was estimated to be £6738 (95% CI = £6297-7172), with an 89% probability of being considered cost-effective at a threshold of £20 000 per quality-adjusted life years gained (97.60% at £30 000). CONCLUSIONS: Using financial incentives to increase hepatitis B vaccination completion in people who inject drugs could be a cost-effective use of health-care resources in the UK as long as the incidence remains above 1.2%.
Professor Marie Claire Van Hout, Ian Norman, Michael Bergin, Charles Parry
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 19(3), 367-381. doi:10.18433/J3T89K, 2016.
Abstract: Promoting and ensuring safe use of codeine containing medicines remains a public health issue given the rise in reporting of misuse and dependence particularly in countries where available over-the-counter (OTC). The aim of this unique study was to identify best practices in management of opioid abuse and dependence, particularly codeine, and innovations to meet challenges surrounding safe and compliant use, patient awareness-raising, reducing health harms and enhancing successful treatment of dependence.
Professor Marie Claire Van Hout, Evelyn Hearne
Country report on New Psychoactive Substances in Ireland. NPS-transnational Project, 2016.
Abstract There has been a rapid growth in the availability of novel psychoactive substances (NPS), labelled ‘legal highs’, ‘designer drugs’, ‘synthetic drugs’, ‘bath salts’, and ‘research chemicals’ over the last number of years (Simonato et al., 2013; ACMD, 2011; Zawilska & Andrzejczak, 2015). NPS have been described by the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD) as, ‘psychoactive drugs which are not prohibited by the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs or by the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, and which people in the UK are seeking for intoxicant use’ (ACMD, 2011). These substances have been persistently considered as legal alternatives to other illicit drugs of abuse (Deluca et al., 2012) although several of these products are packaged with warnings stating “not for human consumption”.
Buprenorphine-Naloxone in the Treatment of Codeine Dependence: A Scoping Review of Clinical Case Presentations.
Professor Marie Claire Van Hout, Evelyn Hearne, Michael Bergin
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MENTAL HEALTH AND ADDICTION, 15(1), 224-237. doi:10.1007/s11469-016-9655-5, 2016.
Abstract Misuse of prescribed and over the counter (OTC) codeine containing medicines is an increasing public health concern in recent times. Studies have called for low threshold treatment services for individuals experiencing codeine dependence using buprenorphine naloxone therapy. We present a scoping review of clinical case presentation literature on the use of buprenorphine-naloxone in the treatment of codeine dependence. Seven records (four single case studies and three case series) on codeine dependence treated with buprenorphine-naloxone were included. Five themes emerged following a review of the cases for the treatment of codeine dependence with buprenorphine-naloxone. They are: (1) Patient Profiles; (2) History of Codeine Misuse; (3) Medical Problems; (4) Use of Other Substances; and (5) Buprenorphine-naloxone in the treatment of Codeine Dependence. The review highlights the complexities of patients with regards to pain, psychiatric illness, poly substance use and iatrogenic dependence, with findings encouraging in terms of patient stabilisation and recovery.
“Once you’ve been there, you’re always recovering”: exploring experiences, outcomes, and benefits of substance misuse recovery
Drugs and Alcohol Today, (2016) Vol. 16 Iss: 1, pp.29 - 38, 2016.
Abstract: Purpose: – Recovery is a central component of UK substance misuse policy, however, relatively little is known about the views and meanings of recovery by those experiencing it. The purpose of this paper is to explore these factors, and understand how service user experiences align to current understandings of “recovery capital”. Design/methodology/approach: – This paper draws on qualitative interviews with 32 individuals from six UK recovery communities, including those commissioned by a statutory service (n=8) and a peer-led recovery community (n=24). Findings: – Meanings of recovery differed between people in abstinence-based communities and those not; however, all had consistent views on their own recovery outcomes and the benefits they believed recovery brought. All viewed recovery as a process; a continuous journey with no end-point. Internal motivation, peer support, social networks and daily structure were integral to supporting individuals achieve and maintain recovery. Key benefits of recovery reflected recovery capital and included positive relationships, sense of belonging, increased self-worth and confidence, employment and education. Research limitations/implications: – This research shows that recovery experiences and outcomes are not centred entirely on the individual but are wider, more holistic. Maintaining recovery involves being connected to themselves and to the wider environment: family, friends, peers and society. Although the recovery capital model has many elements that were discussed by the participants of this research, the discourse they used does not align with the model. To validly measure and quantify recovery outcomes, individuals need to identify with the measures themselves. Practical implications: – From policy and commissioning perspectives, these findings suggest benefits of recovery that were viewed by participants as indicators of success: demonstrate elements which support recovery; and highlight key social value outcomes which people attribute to recovery. Social implications: – These “softer”, qualitative benefits should be considered by policy-makers, commissioners, statutory and non-statutory services in order to evidence outcomes. However, it should also be recognised that a temporally static approach to assessing recovery may be in contradiction to the meaning and perspectives held by those in recovery communities who conceptualise it as a long term and ongoing process. Originality/value: – This paper adds to understandings of experiences and meanings of recovery, with a particular focus on the measurement of outcomes and their meanings, and the role of abstention and continued drug use within the recovery process.