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International Journal Epidemiology, Volume 21 (6), p 1197, 1992.
David Halpern, Professor John Reid
BMJ. 1992 May 9; 304(6836): 1229–1230.
Abstract: Objective: To examine the impact of an unexpected announcement of the demolition of a housing estate on the health of the area's residents. Design: Study of general practitioner consultation rates of the estate's residents after the announcement compared with those of other areas and with those of the previous year. Setting: General practices in Runcorn, Cheshire. Patients: 17,000 patients on lists of the two group practices serving the estate and surrounding area. Main outcome measure: Relative weekly consultation rates with general practitioners. RESULTS--The mean adjusted odds ratio for consultation was 1.12 (SD 0.12) when demolition was expected and 0.877 (0.05) when it was not (t = 5.94, p less than 0.001). The difference remained after the adjustment for the fall in the estate's population was removed (t = 3.7, p less than 0.01). Conclusion: Announcement of the estate's demolition adversely affected residents' health.
Developing the role of the school nurse in public health
Health Education Journal 50:118-22, 1991.
John Ashton, Janet Ubido
The Society for the Social History of Medicine, vol.4, no.1, p.173-181, 1991.
Throughout the world there is currently a revival of interest in public health and, increasingly, this has an urban focus. Major reviews of Public Health in England and Wales and in the United States have led to comprehensive rethinking of medical priorities, and helped to give a new direction to practitioners. It is in this context that it is necessary to consider the World Health Organisation's Healthy Cities Initiative which began in Europe in 1986, and has since stimulated similar initiatives in Australasia, North and South America, and the Middle East; within the United Kingdom over seventy cities and towns are now involved/' It seems appropriate to compare the underlying concepts of the Healthy Cities initiative with those of the Health of Towns Association in England in the 1840s as described by Finer, Lewis and Wohl. A major distinction to be drawn from such a comparison is likely to be that between the sanitary idea as a motivating force of the Victorian public health movement and what might appropriately be described as the ecological idea, which increasingly pervades the new public health initiatives.
J Public Health Med12(2), pp 143-4, 1990.
Professor John Reid, D Breckon, Paul Hunter
Journal of Hospital Infection, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 81-85, 1990.
Abstract: An outbreak of viral gastroenteritis in an elderly persons' residence is reported. Seventeen of 37 (47%) residents and 22 of 50 (44%) staff developed illness. Adenovirus was seen by direct electron microscopy in two vomitus and two faeces specimens. It is suggested that the most likely mode of transmission was environmental contamination by vomitus.
Role of an infected foodhandler in Hotel Outbreak of Norwalk-like Viral Gastro-enteritis: Implications for Control
Professor John Reid, E Owen Caul, David White, Stephen Palmer
The Lancet, Volume 332, Issue 8606 (originally published as Volume 2, Issue 8606), pp 321–323, 1988.
Abstract: Investigation of an outbreak of viral (Norwalk-like) gastroenteritis amongst staff (40 cases), resident guests (over 70 cases), and persons attending functions (54 cases) at one hotel over 8 days suggested that the main vehicle of infection was cold foods prepared by a food handler during and after a mild gastrointestinal illness. He was excreting Norwalk-like virus particles 48 hours after the illness. In addition, ill kitchen staff vomited in the kitchen area and may have contaminated surfaces and stored foods. It is recommended that food handlers should be regarded as potentially infectious until at least 48 hours after clinical recovery from viral gastroenteritis. Stored foods that may have been contaminated should be immediately discarded and areas of the work place which may have been affected should be identified and decontaminated.
Ruth Hussey, Michael Edwards, Professor John Reid, Kevin Sykes, Howard Seymour, E Hopley, John Ashton
Public Health, Volume 101, Issue 2, pp 111–117, 1987.
Abstract: Mersey Regional Health Authority's strategy for health promotion includes increasing the general public's awareness of the individual and collective action necessary to improve health. The development of a ‘Health Fair’ was part of this process. The Health Fair was established as a feature at the International Garden Festival in 1984 and was used to denote a range of activities rather than the building where some of the events took place. The objective was to provide active learning which involved people in a consideration of their health status in different ways. One particular aspect was fitness testing. A sample of 234 people who undertook the fitness test over a two week period were interviewed by questionnaire. Twenty-six percent of males and 25% of females were concerned about their results and of these, 70% intended to exercise more. A follow-up questionnaire, sent 12 months later, produced a 67% response rate. The most obvious behaviour change was that 27% had been exercising more and 37% said that their diet had improved.
Professor John Reid, Joyce Carter
Public Health, Volume 100, Issue 2, pp 69–75, 1986.
Abstract: Outbreaks of hepatitis A in two primary schools in different parts of a city were investigated using similar methods. The pattern of each outbreak indicated that caseto-case transmission was likely. In both schools more boys than girls were affected. In one school, infection was commoner in those who brought packed lunches to school (10/86) compared with those who took school dinners or went home for lunch (3/88), although this was not statistically significant. Simple measures, such as attention to personal hygiene and exclusion of sick children from school, appeared to control the outbreaks. School-based transmission of hepatitis A in 5–14 year olds may be more important than the literature suggests, and may partly explain the high incidence in this age group.