areas of expertise
Nadia Butler works as a research assistant at the Public Health Institute (Violence and Night Life Team). Prior to joining the Institute, Nadia completed an MSc with Distinction in Investigative and Forensic Psychology at the University of Liverpool. She completed her Masters dissertation on sex offenders with learning difficulties’ motivation to engage in treatment and reduce offending behaviour. Nadia also holds a First Class Honours Higher Diploma in Applied Psychology, an MA Criminology, and a BA (Hons) Arts from University College Cork.
Nadia Butler's Publications
Liverpool’s Drink Less Enjoy More Intervention Progress Monitoring Report
UK nightlife environments are characterised by high levels of drunkenness and alcohol related health and social harms (Bellis & Hughes, 2011). Such high levels of intoxication in city centres across the UK belie the fact that the sale of alcohol to, or purchase of alcohol for intoxicated individuals has been illegal for over 400 years (CPS, 2005).
To address the sale of alcohol to drunks in Liverpool City Centre, local partners developed and piloted the multicomponent Say No to Drunks (SNTD) intervention in 2014, and later refined and broadened it as a second (longer-term) phase in 2015 – rebranding the intervention Drink Less Enjoy More (DLEM). The intervention aimed to: increase awareness of the legislation preventing sales of alcohol to, and purchasing of alcohol for drunks; support bar staff compliance with the law; provide a strong deterrence to selling alcohol to drunks; and promote responsible drinking amongst nightlife users. The intervention has now been running for over two years and as part of an ongoing monitoring and development process of DLEM, the Public Health Institute (PHI), Liverpool John Moores University was commissioned to implement a research study to monitor progress of key elements of the intervention.
Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in Hertfordshire, Luton and Northamptonshire
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) include a range of stressful events that children may be exposed to growing up, including: physical, sexual or emotional childhood abuse; family breakdown; exposure to domestic violence; or living in a household affected by substance misuse, mental illness or where someone is incarcerated. A growing body of research has identified that individuals’ childhood experiences are fundamental in determining their future health and social prospects, with ACEs being one of the strongest predictors of poor health and social outcomes in adults.
A cross-sectional survey of 5,454 adults, aged 18-69 years resident in Hertfordshire, Luton and Northamptonshire identified that a substantial proportion of the adult population suffered abuse, neglect or other household dysfunction during their childhood. At least four in ten (44.4%) adults have experienced one or more ACEs and almost one in ten (9.1%) have suffered four or more. The prevalence of individual ACEs ranges from 3.1% of residents reporting living with someone who was incarcerated, to 22.9% experiencing verbal abuse by a parent or adult in their home during their childhood.
The findings of this research support existing international evidence on ACEs, which reveal a cumulative impact of ACEs; an increasing risk of poor health and social outcomes with increasing number of ACEs suffered. Exposure to ACEs has had a major impact on the development of health-harming behaviours (e.g. smoking and binge drinking), health service use (e.g. staying a night in hospital), health outcomes (such as being diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection [STI] or chronic disease), as well as low mental wellbeing and life satisfaction. The findings of this report indicate that ACEs had a clear impact on low mental wellbeing and life satisfaction in the study population. Low mental wellbeing and life satisfaction are linked to increased uptake in health-harming behaviour which are in turn, associated with the development of disease and contribute towards increased risk of premature morbidity, combating ACEs should therefore form a significant investment for the study areas.
The availability of local data on ACEs and their impacts on multi-agency priorities allows partnerships to work together to obtain the greatest benefits from shared resources. The findings from this study can make a substantial contribution to supporting practice in Hertfordshire, Luton and Northamptonshire, helping partners break cycles of adversity and improve public health.
Individual infographics relating to this report can be accessed below:
Broxbourne, Corby, Dacorum, Daventry, East Hertfordshire, East Northamptonshire, Herstmere, Hertfordshire, Kettering, Luton, North Hertfordshire, Northampton, Northamptonshire, South Northamptonshire, St Albans, Stevenage, Three Rivers, Watford, Wellingborough, Welwyn Hatfield
Evaluation of the South Wales Know the Score #DrinkLessEnjoyMore intervention (Phase 2)
Nightlife environments are key settings for alcohol consumption and are typified as areas where excessive drunkenness and related harms are the norm. As part of a broader long-term programme of work to address violence and alcohol-related harms in South Wales, in 2015 the Police and Crime Commissioner for South Wales and South Wales Police developed and piloted the Know the Score #DrinkLessEnjoyMore intervention (phase one). The intervention aimed to: increase awareness of the law around serving alcohol to, and purchasing alcohol for, people who are drunk; help support bar staff in refusing service of alcohol to people who are drunk; deter sales of alcohol to drunks; and promote responsible drinking in South Wales.
Evaluation of phase one of the intervention found an increase in nightlife user knowledge of the law around the service of alcohol to drunks and decreases in nightlife user acceptability of drunkenness, reported levels of preloading and reduced levels of police-recorded violence. Following study recommendations the intervention was further refined and implemented as a second phase in 2015/16. This report presents an overall evaluation of the intervention incorporating phases one and two.