Professor of International Public Health and Associate Dean (Global Engagement) for the Faculty of Education, Health and Community
areas of expertise
Professor Padam Simkhada is a Professor of International Public Health at the Public Health Institute and Associate Dean (Global Engagement) for the Faculty of Education, Health and Community. His research focuses on global public health. He is interested in different aspects of international health particularly in public health problems in developing countries. His current research are on maternal health, health promotion, migration, sex trafficking, reproductive and sexual health including HIV/AIDS. He has been involving on capacity building activities in developing countries particularly on evidence synthesis and systematic reviews. He has published a wide range of peer reviewed journal articles and book chapters related to his research field.
He is originally from Nepal and graduated from Tribhuvan University Nepal. He has completed M.Sc. in Public Health and Health Promotion from Brunel University in 1999 and PhD from Southampton University in 2003. Before he moved to Liverpool John Moores, he was Senior Lecturer in International Health at Sheffield University and Programme Co-ordinator and Lecturer in International Health at the University of Aberdeen. Previously, he worked for Save the Children (UK) and Ministry of Health in Nepal.
He is also a Visiting Professor at Monamohan Institute of Health Science, Tribhuvun University and Nobel College, Pokhara University in Nepal. He is an Honorary Senior Lecturer at the School of Related Research (ScHARR) at the University of Sheffield and a Visiting Fellow at Bournemouth University. He is also Adjunct Faculty at Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed University) Nagpur, India.
In addition to the journal articles in the ‘papers’ section Padam has also authored, co-authored or edited the books and book chapters below:
- Wasti, S.P., Simkhada, P. & van Teijlingen, E. (2015) The Dynamics of Health in Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal: Social Science Baha & Himal Books
- van Teijlingen, E, Simkhada, P., Wasti, P.P. (2015) Nepal is Changing: Modernisation and Diversity in Healthcare. In: Wasti, S.P., Simkhada, P.P. & van Teijlingen, E. (Eds.) The Dynamics of Health in Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal: Social Science Baha & Himal Books: 1-15.
- Wasti, S.P., Simkhada, P. & van Teijlingen, E. (Eds.) (2015) Socio-Cultural Aspects of HIV/AIDS. In: The Dynamics of Health in Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal: Social Science Baha & Himal Books: 47-62.
- Acharya, D.R., Regmi, P., Simkhada, P. van Teijlingen, E. (2015) Modernisation and Changes in Attitudes towards Sex and Relationships in Young People. In: Wasti, S.P., Simkhada, P.P. & van Teijlingen, E. (Eds.) The Dynamics of Health in Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal: Social Science Baha & Himal Books: 63-94.
- Simkhada, B., Sharma, A., van Teijlingen, E., Silwal, R.C., Simkhada, P. (2015) Exploring Maternal Mortality Reduction. In: Wasti, S.P., Simkhada, P.P. & van Teijlingen, E. (Eds.) The Dynamics of Health in Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal: Social Science Baha & Himal Books: 95-121.
- Simkhada, P., van Teijlingen, E., Wasti, S.P. (2015) Final thoughts. In: Wasti, S.P., Simkhada, P.P. & van Teijlingen, E. (Eds.) The Dynamics of Health in Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal: Social Science Baha & Himal Books: 222-228.
Professor Padam Simkhada's Papers
Professor Padam Simkhada, Aditi Sharma, Edwin van Teijlingen, Rachel Beanland
Nepal Journal of Epidemiology, Vol 6, No 1, 2016.
Abstract: Background: Increased travel abroad has a significant impact on the incidence and prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Previous reviews have focused on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of tourists and acquisition of STIs. Less is known about the impact on tourism operators in countries visited by tourists. The aim of this review is to ascertain factors influencing sexual behaviour between workers in the tourism industry and tourists; exploring the prevalence of sexual behaviour between the two populations, their perceptions of sexual risk while engaging in sexual activities and the knowledge of tourism operators regarding STIs. Methods: A systematic review was conducted. Database searches were performed in Medline/Ovid, EMBASE, Cochrane library and CINAHL for studies published between 2000 and March 2016. Grey literature searches were completed in the NHS database and Google Scholar between 2000 and December 2013. Papers were independently selected by two researchers. Data were extracted and critically appraised using a pre-designed extraction form and adapted CASP checklist. Results: The search identified 1,602 studies and 16 were included after review of the full text. Studies were conducted in nine countries. Findings suggest that STI knowledge, attitude and practice were fairly good among tourists and tourism workers, but there is a need for pre-travel advice for travellers, especially those travelling to low and middle-income countries. Greater importance was given to tourists than to tourism operators and locals interacting with tourists. Studies suggest that as a group both tourist and tourist workers were likely to engage in sexual activities. Overall, both condom use and STI screening were low, among tourists as well as tourism operators. Furthermore, studies reported links between drug and alcohol use and sexual behaviour and risk taking. Conclusion: Although less research appeared to have been conducted among tourism workers than tourists, it does demonstrate the need for education, training and promotion of travel medicine. STI screening, pre-travel advice, travel history in terms of contracting STIs and safe-sex awareness-raising are needed. More and better sexual health education and relevant tourism policies are needed globally.
Yagya Prasad Subedi, Professor Padam Simkhada, Bishwambher Pyakuryal
Open Journal of Political Science Vol.6 No.2, PP. 168-178, 2016.
Abstract: Background: Historically, the process of nutrition transition begins with changes in economic structures which move away from agrarian economies to successful industrialisation, with high economic growth, urbanisation and increased real per capita income. Objective: The objective is to identify where Nepal is in economic transition and whether economic transition is considered as one of the proximate determinants of nutrition transition in Nepal. Results: Nepal’s position in the economic transition has been identified by using Popkin’s framework which is scaled from Pattern I to Pattern V. The time series trends indicated that new patterns of economic transition had been observed during 1995-2010, which was similar to the pattern IV of the Nutrition Transition as described by Popkin. The national income of Nepal increased over the past four decades. The GDP of Nepal has shown an annual increase at a rate of 3.92 per cent between 1970 and 2010. Conclusion: Economic growth and agricultural trade liberalization have induced plant fats supply in Nepal. Tourism has also transferred the taste and preferences of western foods to tourist destinations and urban centres, including potential negative health consequences related to excess consumption of fat, sugar and process foods.
Pramod Regmi, Edwin van Teijlingen, Vanora Hundley, Professor Padam Simkhada, Sheetal Sharma, Preeti Mahato
Health Prospect Vol 15, No 1, 2016.
In 2000, the United Nations (UN) adopted eight MillenniumDevelopment Goals (MDGs), three of these focused on health although several other MDGs included health-related components such as nutrition and sanitation (1). Overall progress towards the MDGs has been inspiring and specifically the health-related targets, e.g. MDG4 (reduce child mortality), MDG5 (improve maternal health) and MDG6 (combat HIV/ AIDS, malaria and other diseases) have been promising. For example, the global maternal mortality ratio (MMR) has fallen by 44% (from 341 in 2000 to 216 per 100,000 live births in 2015) and under-five mortality in the same period dropped by 53% (2). Despite these achievements, the world has failed to meet these MDG targets for both maternal mortality and under-five mortality, a fact recognised by maternal health practitioners, policy-makers and researchers across the globe (3). Moreover, progress has not advanced equally across the globe, for instance, improvements in MMR have been better in Southeast Asia (69% reduction) and the Western Pacific (64% reduction) (2).