Violence and Nightlife Research Manager
areas of expertise
Zara Quigg is lead researcher for violence and nightlife health for the Public Health Institute. The Institute is a WHO collaborating centre for violence prevention and her role involves working at a local,national and international level to promote a public health approach to violence prevention. Zara also conducts original research on violence and nightlife health, particularly youth violence in recreational settings, and works with partner agencies to evaluate interventions (e.g. the use of polycarbonate glassware in bars) and services (e.g. the Specialist Domestic Violence Court Programme, Making WAVES). Having developed the North West Trauma and Injury Intelligence Group (TIIG) injury surveillance system (www.tiig,info), a key part of her role involves working with local and national partners to promote the use of local health data in violence and injury prevention activity (e.g. use of A&E data in licensing reviews). She is also helping to develop the LJMU paramedicine network research programme. Before joining the Institute, she studied for her BSc Public Health (HONS) degree at Liverpool John Moores University and in 2008, obtained an MSc in Social Research Methods and Statistics from the University of Manchester.
Dr Zara Quigg's Publications
Liverpool’s Drink Less Enjoy More Intervention Progress Monitoring Report
UK nightlife environments are characterised by high levels of drunkenness and alcohol related health and social harms (Bellis & Hughes, 2011). Such high levels of intoxication in city centres across the UK belie the fact that the sale of alcohol to, or purchase of alcohol for intoxicated individuals has been illegal for over 400 years (CPS, 2005).
To address the sale of alcohol to drunks in Liverpool City Centre, local partners developed and piloted the multicomponent Say No to Drunks (SNTD) intervention in 2014, and later refined and broadened it as a second (longer-term) phase in 2015 – rebranding the intervention Drink Less Enjoy More (DLEM). The intervention aimed to: increase awareness of the legislation preventing sales of alcohol to, and purchasing of alcohol for drunks; support bar staff compliance with the law; provide a strong deterrence to selling alcohol to drunks; and promote responsible drinking amongst nightlife users. The intervention has now been running for over two years and as part of an ongoing monitoring and development process of DLEM, the Public Health Institute (PHI), Liverpool John Moores University was commissioned to implement a research study to monitor progress of key elements of the intervention.
Alcohol’s harms to others: the harms from other people’s alcohol consumption in Wales
Internationally, there is growing recognition of the harms that an individual’s alcohol consumption can cause to those around them (referred to as alcohol’s harms to others). Consequently, research into this issue has started to emerge highlighting the nature, extent and costs of alcohol’s harms to others across various populations. This report looks at the harms from other people’s alcohol consumption in Wales.
Niwed Alcohol I Eraill: y niwed oherwydd defnydd pobl eraill o alcohol yng Nghymru
Yn rhyngwladol, mae cydnabyddiaeth gynyddol o’r niwed y gall defnydd unigolyn o alcohol ei achosi i’r rheiny o’u hamgylch (cyfeirir at hyn fel niwed alcohol i eraill). O ganlyniad, mae ymchwil i’r mater hwn wedi dechrau dod i’r amlwg gan amlygu natur, graddau a chostau niwed alcohol i eraill ar draws poblogaethau amrywiol.
Dr Zara Quigg's Papers
Relationships between adverse childhood experiences and adult mental well-being: results from an English national household survey
Professor Karen Hughes, Helen Lowey, Dr Zara Quigg, Professor Mark Bellis
BMC Public Health 16:222, 2016.
Abstract: Background: Individuals’ childhood experiences can strongly influence their future health and well-being. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as abuse and dysfunctional home environments show strong cumulative relationships with physical and mental illness yet less is known about their effects on mental well-being in the general population. Methods: A nationally representative household survey of English adults (n = 3,885) measuring current mental well-being (Short Edinburgh-Warwick Mental Well-being Scale SWEMWBS) and life satisfaction and retrospective exposure to nine ACEs. Results: Almost half of participants (46.4 %) had suffered at least one ACE and 8.3 % had suffered four or more. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for low life satisfaction and low mental well-being increased with the number of ACEs. AORs for low ratings of all individual SWEMWBS components also increased with ACE count, particularly never or rarely feeling close to others. Of individual ACEs, growing up in a household affected by mental illness and suffering sexual abuse had the most relationships with markers of mental well-being. Conclusions: Childhood adversity has a strong cumulative relationship with adult mental well-being. Comprehensive mental health strategies should incorporate interventions to prevent ACEs and moderate their impacts from the very earliest stages of life.
Incidents of harm in European drinking environments and relationships with venue and customer characteristics
Dr Zara Quigg, Professor Karen Hughes, Professor Mark Bellis, Ninette van Hasselt, Amador Calafat, Matej Kosir, Mariangels Duch, Montse Juan, Lotte Voorham, Ferry Goossens
The International Journal Of Alcohol And Drug Research, August 2014.
Abstract: Aim: Research shows there are associations between bar environments and alcohol-related harms. However, few European studies have examined such links. Our study investigates the type of harms experienced by patrons in European bars, and their relationships with individual, social and environmental factors. Design: Unobtrusive one-hour observational visits. Characteristics of the bar environment, staff and patrons, and harms observed were recorded on structured schedules. Setting: Bars in four cities in the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the United Kingdom (U.K.). Participants: 238 observations across 60 bars. Measures: Analyses utilized chi-squared, analyses of variance and logistic regression. Findings: 114 incidents of harm were observed; in one-fifth of visits, at least one incident was recorded. People falling over, arguing or being so severely intoxicated that they required assistance to walk were the most common incidents observed. Bivariate analyses showed associations between a range of staffing, customer and environmental characteristics, and incidents of harm. Controlling for city and venue, only a permissive environment remained significant in multivariate analyses. Conclusions: Harms occurring in nightlife venues are typically minor. However, such incidents have the potential to escalate into more serious harms; thus, prevention is crucial. Prevention should focus on improving venue management practice and on the behavioral standards expected of customers.
Does legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals work? Measuring the propensity for night-time sales to drunks in a UK city
Professor Karen Hughes, Professor Mark Bellis, Nicola Leckenby, Dr Zara Quigg, Katie Hardcastle, Olivia Sharples, David J Llewellyn
J Epidemiol Community Health, doi:10.1136/jech-2013-203287, 2014.
Abstract: Background: By measuring alcohol retailers’ propensity to illegally sell alcohol to young people who appear highly intoxicated, we examine whether UK legislation is effective at preventing health harms resulting from drunk individuals continuing to access alcohol. Methods: 73 randomly selected pubs, bars and nightclubs in a city in North West England were subjected to an alcohol purchase test by pseudo-drunk actors. Observers recorded venue characteristics to identify poorly managed and problematic (PMP) bars. Results: 83.6% of purchase attempts resulted in a sale of alcohol to a pseudo-intoxicated actor. Alcohol sales increased with the number of PMP markers bars had, yet even in those with no markers, 66.7% of purchase attempts resulted in a sale. Bar servers often recognised signs of drunkenness in actors, but still served them. In 18% of alcohol sales, servers attempted to up-sell by suggesting actors purchase double rather than single vodkas. Conclusions: UK law preventing sales of alcohol to drunks is routinely broken in nightlife environments, yet prosecutions are rare. Nightlife drunkenness places enormous burdens on health and health services. Preventing alcohol sales to drunks should be a public health priority, while policy failures on issues, such as alcohol pricing, are revisited.
- Published 6 February 2015
- Tagged Violence and unintentional injury